Sun. Mar 3rd, 2024

A new study called “Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure by Tobacco Product Type and Dual-Use” was presented at the 96th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. The annual meet is held in conjunction with the IADR Pan European Regional (PER) Congress. Benjamin Chaffee from the University of California, San Francisco presented the study at this annual Session and Exhibition that was held in London, England from July 25-28.

Excessive tobacco is still the leading cause of oral cancer worldwide but now, due to the emergence of evolved tobacco products, like the increased use of dual-use of multiple product types and non-cigarette tobacco product. Chaffe and Neal Benowitz from the University of California, who is also a co-author of the study, decided to evaluate the exposure to known carcinogens. They also took in consideration how these recently these products were used, whether they were used alone, or in combination.

For the study, researchers studied the data that was collected by the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health. The data consisted of urine samples that were collected U.S. adults for analyzing the presence of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a well known oral and esophageal carcinogen, 4-(methynitrosamino)-1-(3)-pyridyle-1-butanol (NNAL), which is a metabolite of lung carcinogen (NNK) and total nicotine equivalents.

All the participants were then put into different categories on the basis of their use of combustible- which includes cigarettes, cigars, water pipe, pipes, blunts (marijuana-containing cigars), smokeless- which includes moist snuff, chewable tobacco and snus, e-cigarettes and nicotine replacement products. The research team defined recent use as within the preceding 3 days, and non-use as within as no absolute usage within 30 days.

All the tobacco usage categories showed elevated nicotine and TSNA concentrations in relation to non-users. Exposure to TSNA were seen to be highest among participants that used smokeless tobacco, sole and combined use being irrelevant. Some of the exclusive e-cigarette were exposed to lower levels of NNN and NNAL than other participants who used other products, despite both the groups having comparable nicotine exposure.

But the research team also saw that most of the participants who used e-cigarette with combustible tobacco which resulted in TSNA exposure which was similar to that of exclusive cigarette smokers. The study showed that e-cigarette smokers are exposed to the almost the same levels of carcinogens as that of the exclusive cigarette smokers, proving that e-cigarettes puts smokers at the same risk of oral cancer.

By Purnima

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