The Indian Wire » Technology » C# vs Java : Comparison of two most popular programming languages!

C# vs Java : Comparison of two most popular programming languages!

Sun was the company that introduced Java, and understandably, it wanted to control its design and evolution. Unfortunately, Microsoft also wanted a piece of the action, and in particular, wanted to change Java in certain ways that suited its needs. This situation became a legal nightmare, and eventually, Microsoft decided that instead of trying to influence Java, it would simply design its own language, which is called C# (pronounced “C sharp”). We will be using this language in CS-112. It is better than Java in certain ways but is so similar in most ways that once you have learned how to program in C#, it will be trivial to transfer your knowledge to Java.

Before getting started with their head-to-head comparison, let us take a brief look about the introduction of both language


C# is a modern object-oriented programming language developed in 2000 by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft as a rival to Java. C# (pronounced “C-sharp”) is an object-oriented programming language from Microsoft that aims to combine the computing power of C++ with the programming ease of Visual Basic. C# is based on C++ and contains features similar to those of Java.

The most recent version is C# 7.3, which was released in 2018 along with Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7.2

C# simplifies programming through its use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), which allow access to a programming object or method without requiring the programmer to write additional code for each step.
C# is designed to work with Microsoft’s.Net platform. Microsoft’s aim is to facilitate the exchange of information and services over the Web, and to enable developers to build highly portable applications.

C# can be used to create almost anything but is particularly strong at building Windows desktop applications and games. C# can also be used to develop web applications and has become increasingly popular for mobile development too.


Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is what you get when you download Java software. The JRE consists of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), Java platform core classes, and supporting Java platform libraries. The JRE is the runtime portion of Java software, which is all you need to run it in your Web browser.
Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!
Java was designed to have the look and feel of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented programming model. Java can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. It can also be used to build a small application module or applet for use as part of a webpage.

C# vs Java: major differences

1. Java programming language is designed to be run on a Java platform, by the help of Java Runtime Environment (JRE). On the other hand, C# programming language is designed to be run on the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
2. Java type safety is safe but C# type safety is unsafe.
3. In Java, built-in data types that are passed by value are called primitive types. In C#, built-in data types that are passed by value are called simple types.
4. Arrays in Java are a direct specialization of Object but Arrays in C# are a specialization of System.
5.Java does not support conditional compilation whereas C# supports conditional compilation using preprocessor directives.
6. Java does not support goto statement but C# supports goto statement.
7. Java does not support structures and unions but C# supports structures and unions.
8. Java supports checked exception and unchecked exception. C# supports the unchecked exception.

Major Projects in Java

1. Facebook

The most popular social media is also powered by Java. Facebook uses HBase (a Java-based No-SQL DB) as a messaging platform and also uses Java in other areas.

2. Amazon

Love online shopping!! Amazon also uses java in addition to other languages.

3. eBay

eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. eBay architecture is based on java.

4. Google

Google uses Java extensively in Google Plus, GTalk (High Scalability – High Scalability – GoogleTalk Architecture) etc

5. Linkedin

LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Primarily it is written in Java.

Major Projects in C#

Here are some popular application using c#

1. Banshee

Banshee is a cross-platform open-source media player, called Sonance until 2005. Banshee was the default music player for a year in Ubuntu and for some time in Linux Mint but was later replaced by Rhythmbox in both distributions.

2. Colectica

Colectica is a suite of programs for use in managing official statistics and statistical surveys using open standards that enable researchers, archivists. Colectica is currently in use by a variety of University survey research groups, Longitudinal Studies National Statistics Offices, Data archives, and commercial survey research organizations.

3. Visual Studio

Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense (the code completion component) as well as code refactoring.

4. (stylized as Paint.NET or is a freeware raster graphics editor program for Microsoft Windows, developed on the .NET Framework.

Final words

With so much in common, the language you ultimately choose to use will depend largely upon the platform you have chosen for your project. Today, C# is used primarily on the .NET Framework, Mono, and Portable.NET implementations of the CLI. If your software or web application is being built for Windows, C# will work best with the .NET suite of technologies.
That said, if you wish to develop for Unix, Linux, or other platforms outside of the Microsoft platform, Java’s large open-source ecosystem is the better choice. The community is constantly creating new libraries and tools.

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  • The differences between the two languages you mention are not really the core differences. Can you explain number 2? Why do you think the type system of C# is unsafe (or not that safe than the one Java uses)?
    Number 3 is not really saying anything about the languages itself. The difference is that the C# integrated types are ordinary structs (value types) that inherit from System.Object leading to a unified type system, while the primitive types of Java are opaque and need special wrapper classes to be boxed.
    For number 4, I think you missed the word ‘Array’ at the end. Arrays are a specialization of ‘System.Array’.

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