List of top programming languages to learn in 2019

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Saurabh Joshi
Hey Guys!!! I am a regular Content Writer here and I bring to you the latest and the hottest Tech related news and blogs. I hope you enjoy reading my content and are learning something new everyday. Thanks and have a nice day!!!

“A language that doesn’t affect the way you think about programming is not worth knowing.” 
                                                                           ― Alan J. Perlis

Programming Languages

What is programming language:

Wikipedia definition states, “A programming language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.”

For beginners just stepping in the world of programming, the biggest dilemma is to decide where to begin or which language to opt for first in order to make your career bright as a Programmer. At times, even professional coders face a situation where learning a new language seems to be more fruitful.

Choosing which programming language to learn involves a number of points to keep in mind. You will need to find a balance between the time and effort involved in learning any language and the perceived benefits of the language.

Which language is the best? -is an example of the wrong statement of the question.

Which language suits the most for … -worth a theoretical question.

Which languages are used for … -closer to the point.

One of the easiest ways to pick the best programming languages to learn in 2019 is by listening to what the market says, where the tech trend is going.

However, I have tried to compile a list of ‘Programming languages to learn in order from my point of view which I hope will be helpful to the developers out there. So, let’s get straight into this. Here is how the list goes:

Top Programming Languages To Learn In 2019:

1. JavaScript:

JavaScript Logo

It is impossible to be a software developer these days without using JavaScript in some way. It is on of the best computer language to learn. According to the Stack Overflow’s 2018 Developer Survey, 71.5% of professional developers ranked JavaScript as the most popular programming language for the sixth year in a row.

People often ask which programming language is best for web development? Well, if we go by the stats the answer is JavaScript.

JavaScript is everywhere. It’s vital to front-end development and increasingly relevant to back-end development.

JavaScript Code

Pros:

  • Speed: Being client-side, JavaScript is very fast because any code functions can be run immediately instead of having to contact the server and wait for an answer.
  • Simplicity: JavaScript is relatively simple to learn and implement.
  • Versatility: JavaScript plays nicely with other languages and can be used in a huge variety of applications. Unlike PHP or SSI scripts, JavaScript can be inserted into any web page regardless of the file extension. JavaScript can also be used inside scripts written in other languages such as Perl and PHP.
  • Server Load: Being client-side reduces the demand on the website server.

Cons:

  • Security: Since the code executes on the users’ computer, in some cases it can be exploited for malicious purposes. This is one reason some people choose to disable JavaScript.
  • Reliance on End User: JavaScript is sometimes interpreted differently by different browsers. Whereas server-side scripts will always produce the same output, client-side scripts can be a little unpredictable. Don’t be overly concerned by this though – as long as you test your script in all the major browsers you should be safe.

2. Python:

Python Logo

Python is one of the general purpose, user-friendly and on of the best programming languages to know. Python has seen a significant rise in the index and deemed as one of the most popular programming languages.

According to Stack Overflow, there is one section which says “To be adopted or migrated to be—or to migrate too soon”, and for python, it’s 12% which is the highest for any programming language. People who have migrated to python are close to around 42%, which is why I kept it at number #2.

Python is being used by many for various purposes now some of which are Software Engineer, Software Developer,  Web Developer, Quality Assurance Engineer, Data Science.

Python Code

Pros:

  • Python is easy to learn for even a novice developer. Its code is easy to read and you can do a lot of things just by looking at it. Also, you can execute a lot of complex functionalities with ease, thanks to the standard library.
  • Supports multiple systems and platforms.
  • Object-Oriented Programming-driven.
  • With the introduction of Raspberry Pi, a card-sized microcomputer, Python has expanded its reach to unprecedented heights. Developers can now build cameras, radios and games with ease. So, learning Python could open new avenues for you to create some out-of-the-box gadgets.
  • Python has a plethora of frameworks that make web programming very flexible.
  • Gives rise to quick development by using less code. Even a small team can handle Python effectively.
  • Allows scaling even the most complex applications with ease.
  • A large number of resources are available for Python.

Cons:

  • Python is slow
  • Python is not a very good language for mobile development.
  • Python is not a good choice for memory intensive tasks.
  • It’s near impossible to build a high-graphic 3D game using Python.
  • Has limitations with database access.
  • Python is not good for multi-processor/multi-core work.

Read more:

3. Java:

Java Logo

According to Stack Overflow’s 2018 survey, 45.5% of professional developers favor. There’s a great saying ”write once run everywhere” capture one of the keys that make Java so valuable, the reason for Java’s enduring appeal being the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) which makes it cross-platform compatible. It is still one of the finest coding languages to learn.

Java is also the basis for the Android operating system and the most common language for developing Android apps. The language is favored by enterprises too, with roughly 90 percent of Fortune 500 companies using Java for building applications and other back end systems.

Java Code

Pros:

  • Object- Oriented language.
  • Java offers APIs for different activities like Database connection, networking, XML parsing, utilities, etc.
  • Powerful open source Rapid Development tools.
  • A large number of open source libraries are available.

Cons:

  • Memory management in Java is quite expensive.
  • The absence of templates can limit you to create high-quality data structures.

Read more:

4. Swift:

Swift Logo

Next on the list is Swift. Swift was developed by Apple in July 2010 so that iOS developers do not need to work with Objective-C. Developers use Swift to build powerful, high-performance, native iOS, macOS and Linux apps. It is one of the most used programming languages for iPhone application development because of its immersive ability to employ compilers and syntaxes based on different C-based languages.

Swift Code

Pros:

  • Easy to Read and Maintain
  • Scalable
  • Concise
  • Safety and Improved Performance
  • Cross-device Support
  • Automatic Memory Management

Cons:

  • Problems with the Compatibility
  • Speed Issues

5. Kotlin:

Kotlin Logo

Kotlin first appeared as a new language for Java Virtual Machine from a team of Saint-Peterburg programmers called Jet Brains. From the day Kotlin was introduced as an official Android app development language, the language has enjoyed a skyrocketing rise in its popularity.

Kotlin Code

Pros:

  • Kotlin requires less code to write
  • Fewer crashes occur on Kotlin.
  • Kotlin needs lesser time when it comes to customization and maintenance.

Cons:

  • Being very close to Java, Kotlin still differs in many aspects. Thus, a certain learning curve is involved for a developer who wants to switch languages.
  • Slower compilation speed
  • Small developer community.
  • Hard to find experienced professionals in this domain.

6. C++:

  C++ Logo

C++ is a programming language that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983. C++ is a more modern, object-oriented version of C.  C++ still remains in demand owing to its flexibility, performance and multiple contexts where you can use it. A career in C++ would usually involve the development of desktop applications which are focused on performance-intensive tasks.

C++ Code

Pros:

  • It is a popular language, and thus, there are many compilers and libraries
  • Other programming languages like C, C#, and Java have very similar syntax to C++, make it easy to learn for everyone who knows C++.
  • No garbage collector is running in the background.

Cons:

  • The syntax is complex, and the standard library is small, making this language very difficult to learn for the beginner programmer.
  • C++ program can’t support garbage collection or Dynamic Memory Allocation
  • The object orientation system in C++ is unnecessarily basic compared to other languages.

Read more:

10 Best Integrated Development Environment (IDEs) for C++

7. Go:

  Go Logo

Go is developed by Google and is a minimal language like Python. Go language is also known as golang. Go provides much better features to write concurrent programs compared to others. In this era where multi-core apps are being written, Go addresses the need quite well and also there’s built-in support of concurrency in it.

Go Code

Pros:

  • Go Is Fast
  • Static Typing
  • Interface Types
  • Standard Library
  • Testing Support
  • Static Analysis Tools
  • Garbage Collection
  • Easier Concurrency Model

Cons:

  • No Generics
  • Interfaces Are Implicit
  • Poor Library Support
  • Difficult Community
  • Fractured Dependency Management

8. Rust:

   Rust Logo

Rust language was originally developed by Mozilla Foundation and it operates as a low-level language, suited for performance critical code. It is a new system-level programming language that is changing the way we think about programming. Rust was created with the purpose of avoiding the dangling pointers, buffer overflows or any other kind of memory errors. Rust is like C and C++.

  Rust Code

Pros:

  • Awesome at managing resources like DB connections and memory.
  • A decent type system that will allow you to focus on code, rather than hunting bugs.
  • Very well thought in terms of design and open source libs are really well thought too.

Cons:

  •  Hard to learn.
  •  Doesn’t have a lot of open source libs.
  • It does have all the necessary libs for making your development to be productive, but each area is covered by 1 lib, so you don’t really have a lot of choices.
  • Awesome at managing resources like DB connections and memory.
  • A decent type system that will allow you to focus on code, rather than hunting bugs.
  • Very well thought in terms of design and open source libs are really well thought too.

Conclusion:

Here is a quick summary of the different possibilities that we’ve discussed:

  • Front-end web development: JavaScript
  • Back-end web development: JavaScript, Java, Python,
  • Mobile development: Swift, Java
  • Game development: C++
  • Desktop applications: Java, C++, Python
  • Systems programming: Rust

Hopefully, this list is helpful to the readers looking for a way to get into the programming world. Do Drop a comment if you find this article helpful or even if you have any thoughts to share, I would be glad to know them and share it in my next article if I did miss any programming language which you think should be included in the list.

2 COMMENTS

  1. Aside from your Rust list having some very excellent sounding Cons, I don’t think I’ve ever seen a list of Rust’s Pros that didn’t mention the most unique thing about the language (compile guaranteed safety, no GC, no added runtime overhead). Also is the only language I know that can prevent code with data races from compiling.

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